Community Trainings & Events Calendar

Welcome to MNN’s Nonprofit Trainings and Events Calendar! Here you’ll find trainings and events across the state to help you network, learn & give back. Browse the full calendar below or use the categories and tags to filter by region or event type.

To submit an event, click the button below.

All submissions will be approved by MNN staff prior to being posted (typically within 24 hours).  You must be an MNN nonprofit or affiliate member to submit an event. Not a member yet? Annual membership starts as low as $75 and includes unlimited job postings and many other year-round benefits. Click to learn more and join.

For questions concerning MNN’s Nonprofit Trainings and Events Calendar please contact events@massnonprofitnet.org.

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Feb
16
Tue
Microsoft Nonprofit Product Licensing
Feb 16 @ 1:00 pm

Are you using Microsoft Office 365? If so, you may be surprised to learn that Microsoft has added many new features and options to their nonprofit pricing structure. Sam Chenkin will discuss Office 365 licensing ins and outs and shed light on new licenses available including Azure AD, EMS, Office 365 E5, etc.

Feb
17
Wed
Intellectual Property Law Overview for Nonprofits @ Boston Private Bank & Trust Company
Feb 17 @ 8:30 am – 10:30 am
Intellectual Property Law Overview for Nonprofits @ Boston Private Bank & Trust Company | Boston | Massachusetts | United States

Breakfast and networking from 8:30 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. A buffet of pastries, fruit, juices, coffee and tea will be available.

Many nonprofits have intellectual property assets and don’t know if they need to protect them or could generate income from them. The intellectual property assets a nonprofit may have include their name / trademarks-service marks-certification marks, copyright in their project materials such as studies/reports/books/film-video, performances, training manuals and materials in writing or in any other medium. Also, various forms of proprietary know-how (trade secrets) and inventions protectable by utility, design or plan patents. In this fast evolving digital age, it is very easy to copy someone’s protected materials. Would you like to protect your nonprofit’s assets? Could these assets possibly generate fees from licensing? Revenues subject to UBIT or not? Or are you willing to share them with anyone in the spirit of open source? If so, would this approach ensure your permanent access to these assets? Are you inadvertently infringing other parties’ rights and creating liability and costs of defense for your nonprofit? Come learn about the parameters of various types of intellectual properties, and options such assets present to your nonprofit (and pitfalls).

This seminar is designed to help nonprofits understand the intellectual property they may own. Lawyers Clearinghouse will offer an individual consultation session with lawyer(s) at a later date to help nonprofits address their specific intellectual property issues.

Opening remarks: Esther Schlorholtz, Senior Vice President, Director of Community Investment, Boston Private

Speaker: Jerry Cohen, Partner, Burns & Levinson LLP and Access to Justice Fellow

Please note that registration is required for security clearance.

Mar
1
Tue
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop (Boston Public Library) @ Boston Public Library - Commonwealth Salon
Mar 1 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop (Boston Public Library) @ Boston Public Library - Commonwealth Salon | Boston | Massachusetts | United States

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
What is a Not-for-Profit?
Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
State Reporting & Regulation
Federal Tax Exemption
Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Janet Rickershauser, Esq., Attorney at Law; Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Anli Jiao, Third Sector New England.

Co-sponsors: Goodwin Procter LLP, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, Third Sector New England.

Jun
14
Tue
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin Procter
Jun 14 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin Procter

Please go here http://bit.ly/1rtvYqw for information on registration and payment.

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

– For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
– What is a Not-for-Profit?
– Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
– Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
– State Reporting & Regulation
– Federal Tax Exemption
– Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Susan Abbott, Esq., Goodwin Procter; Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Anli Jiao, Third Sector New England

Co-sponsors: Goodwin Procter LLP, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, Third Sector New England.

Nov
14
Mon
Operation A.B.L.E.–Free Workforce computer training @ At your Location or Ours
Nov 14 2016 – Jan 13 2017 all-day

We provide no-cost computer training programs for all Ma. Based companies. Employers maximize productivity as workers enhance overall computer performance and effectiveness. We train on the following applications.
Excel
Word
PowerPoint
Access
Outlook
QuickBooks
..and others… from beginner to advanced users. Free!!
If you would like additional information please contact Greg Haig at ghaig@operationable.net
or see our brochure http://www.operationable.net/pdf/OA-Workforce-Brochure-FINAL-6.15.16.pdf

Dec
8
Thu
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin
Dec 8 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

– For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
– What is a Not-for-Profit?
– Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
– Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
– State Reporting & Regulation
– Federal Tax Exemption
– Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Susan Abbott, Esq., Goodwin; Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Josh Sattely, Third Sector New England

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, Third Sector New England.

Jan
31
Tue
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Boston Public Library
Jan 31 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Boston Public Library

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

– For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
– What is a Not-for-Profit?
– Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
– Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
– State Reporting & Regulation
– Federal Tax Exemption
– Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Susan Abbott, Esq., Goodwin; Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Anli Jiao, Third Sector New England

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, Third Sector New England.

Mar
16
Thu
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin
Mar 16 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
What is a Not-for-Profit?
Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
State Reporting & Regulation
Federal Tax Exemption
Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Alyssa Fitzgerald, Goodwin; Janet Rickershauser, Pathway Law; and Anli Jiao, Third Sector New England.

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, and Third Sector New England.

Jun
20
Tue
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Boston Public Library – Commonwealth Salon
Jun 20 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Boston Public Library – Commonwealth Salon

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
What is a Not-for-Profit?
Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
State Reporting & Regulation
Federal Tax Exemption
Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Josh Sattely, Third Sector New England; Janet Rickershauser, Attorney at Law

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, Third Sector New England.

Dec
13
Wed
A TNB Roundtable session especially for grant makers, philanthropy professionals, and other funders! @ Boston NonProfit Center
Dec 13 @ 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

If you’re a grant maker, philanthropy professional, or funder, then we invite you to register for this special session about underwriting initiatives to enable nonprofit organizations to build the capacity to do evaluation.:

TNB Roundtable: Funders Supporting Nonprofits’ Capacity to Do Evaluation

https://www.eventbrite.com/e/tnb-roundtable-funders-supporting-nonprofits-capacity-to-do-evaluation-registration-39837410768?aff=mnn

We have a very distinguished panel for this session:

Douglas Shipman, Hartford Foundation for Public Giving

Ellen Dickenson, United Way of Masschusetts Bay & Merrimack Valley

Michael Johnson, McCormack Graduate School of UMass-Boston

Trina Jackson, TSNE MissionWorks

This is really a dream team! Doug and Ellen each have first hand experience at grantmaking organizations in managing programs that build the capacity of nonprofits to do evaluation. Michael is an educator with deep expertise in community-based participatory research. Trina is not only a funder but also an expert on community inclusion and engagement.

Our goals for this session are to share lessons learned from assisting nonprofits in building their capacity to do evaluation, and to highlight the potential for making nonprofit evaluation more meaningful and useful through community participation.

Jan
31
Wed
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Boston Public Library - Commonwealth Salon on the first floor of the McKim Building
Jan 31 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm

Please RSVP by January 26.

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
What is a Not-for-Profit?
Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
State Reporting & Regulation
Federal Tax Exemption
Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Susan Abbott, Goodwin; Josh Sattely, TSNE MissionWorks.

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, Third Sector New England.

Sep
18
Tue
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin
Sep 18 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm

Please register for this event by September 14.

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
What is a Not-for-Profit?
Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
State Reporting & Regulation
Federal Tax Exemption
Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Josh Sattely, TSNE MissionWorks.

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, TSNE MissionWorks.

Oct
2
Tue
How to Maintain Nonprofit, Tax-Exempt, and Public Charity Status @ Goodwin
Oct 2 @ 4:00 pm – 6:00 pm

Please register for this event by September 28.

This two-hour workshop offers an overview of compliance requirements with various government agencies and practical tips for nascent nonprofits, including the IRS rules on fundraising and political activities.

Presenters: Veronica Zhang, Community Action Program Legal Services; Brittany Besler, Krokidas & Bluestein LLP

Co-Sponsors: Goodwin Procter LLP, AAFCPAs and the Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts

Oct
17
Wed
Pfizer Strategic Legal Thinking Seminars for Nonprofit Executives: Insurance Basics for Nonprofits @ Webinar
Oct 17 @ 12:50 pm – 3:30 pm

Lawyers Clearinghouse is pleased to announce a complimentary webinar for nonprofit organizations, Strategic Legal Thinking Seminars – Insurance Basics for Nonprofits: What All Nonprofits Should Know, offered by Pfizer and Exponentum (TM). The webinar will discuss legal and practical issues that nonprofits confront when seeking to protect themselves through insurance coverage. Lawyers Clearinghouse is pleased to be part of Exponentum (TM).

Speakers will include Scott Konrad of Hub International, and Teresa Lewi and Russell Squire of Covington & Burling LLP.

Please register by 12:00 pm on October 9.

Program (all times are Eastern Time)
12:30 p.m. Registration and Networking (for New York City live location)
12:45 p.m. Opening Remarks (for New York City and WebEx participants)
12:50 p.m. Start of Program Presentation
3:15 p.m. Q&A
3:30 p.m. Adjournment

Nov
8
Thu
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin
Nov 8 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm

Please register for this event by November 6.

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
What is a Not-for-Profit?
Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
State Reporting & Regulation
Federal Tax Exemption
Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Jim Grace, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Sue Abbott, Goodwin.

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, TSNE MissionWorks.

Nov
13
Tue
Advanced Grant Seeking @ Philanthropy Massachusetts
Nov 13 @ 9:00 am – 12:00 pm
Advanced Grant Seeking @ Philanthropy Massachusetts

Nonprofit organizations often seek grant support but fall short in receiving an award. Competition for grants continue to grow as government funding dwindles. Learn how to present your case for support no matter the type or size of grant you are requesting. This session will sharpen your grant-seeking skills by making your proposal more competitive.

From logic models to making your case for support using 2,000 or less characters, this workshop will help you prepare successful paper and paperless proposal narratives including those to the different levels of government. There will be a discussion on the use of Gantt and PERT charts and other visual aids to help reviewers quickly understand the intent of your proposed project. You will also learn techniques to use when preparing proposals to obtain grants for capacity-building projects and capital campaigns.

The intended learning goals are as follows:

– Understand the current giving trends of foundations, corporations, and government agencies
– Analyze request for proposals (RFPs) to determine a fit with your proposed project
– Prepare reviewer friendly proposals
– Formulate strategies to develop proposals for special projects, capacity-building efforts, and capital campaigns
– Learn techniques to apply for a multi-year or million-dollar grant

This workshop provides learning opportunities for intermediate to advanced (10+ years) grant seekers. The ideal participants will be those with two or more years of experience preparing grant proposals who have an understanding how to develop a strong needs statement, goals and outcomes, evaluation strategies, and the budget and justification for the project/program they propose.

Presenter
Diane Gedeon-Martin is a nationally recognized grants consultant, instructor, and lecturer in the area of grants and grant seeking for nonprofit organizations. For more than 25 years, she has trained over 20,000 people through her grant-seeking workshops and conference sessions. Her dedication to the field is evident in the way she speaks about the grant seeking process; her enthusiasm is contagious!

For 13 years, she was a member of the faculty of the former Connecticut Association of Nonprofits (CT Nonprofits, now renamed The Alliance after a merger) where she conducted several grant-seeking workshops annually including the popular two-day, semi-annual Grant Proposal Certificate Series. In 2015, she retired from the her position as an adjunct faculty member of The Fund Raising School (TFRS) at the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy at Indiana University where she not only taught for 14 years but also co-developed the curriculum for the Preparing Successful Grant Proposals course.

Diane is a certified Master Trainer through the Faculty Training Academy of the Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP) International. She is a frequent presenter at regional, national, and international conferences including six consecutive AFP International Conferences, an AFP International Audioconference, and several Grant Professionals Association (GPA) regional and national conferences. In 2017, she was the keynote speaker at the New England (NE) GPA regional conference.

Dec
7
Fri
Get on Board! Seminar @ Locke Lord LLP
Dec 7 @ 12:00 pm – 4:30 pm
Get on Board! Seminar @ Locke Lord LLP

The A&BC’s Business on Board program provides board service training for executives as well as board development consulting resources for nonprofits.

“Get on Board!” Seminars
Boston-area nonprofit organizations are in need of experienced business professionals to share their unique expertise and passion for important causes. Business skills, enthusiasm, and the desire to make a positive difference can have a huge impact on any organization. If you have always wanted to serve on the board of a nonprofit now is your chance to learn what is required and to find the organization that’s right for you.

Get on Board!, a one-day bootcamp, prepares business professionals for the rewarding experience of volunteerism, nonprofit leadership, and board participation. These seminars are also well-suited for nonprofit administrators seeking to learn more about board management or who are seeking to onboard new or prospective board members.

Participants learn about the different types and structures of boards, as well as the roles, responsibilities, and legal obligations of nonprofit board members. This seminar also provides the tools and resources to find the organization that is a best fit for an individual’s skills and passions.

This fun and interactive seminar covers:
Board types and structures
Effective board governance
Group dynamics and decision making
Legal and fiduciary responsibilities
Fundraising, marketing, and strategic planning
Finding the organization for you

Who should attend:
Anyone interesting in serving on a board now or in the future
Current board members seeking a better understanding of their role
Executives of newly incorporated nonprofits
Executive Directors and administrators of nonprofits
Business professionals of any age and level of experience who are passionate about nonprofit causes
Human resources professionals or directors of training
Entire nonprofit boards or board committees that want to learn together and build common language and goals related to healthy board development and operations.

Dec
13
Thu
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin
Dec 13 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin

**Please RSVP by December 11**

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or do you have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

– For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
– What is a Not-for-Profit?
– Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
– Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
– State Reporting & Regulation
– Federal Tax Exemption
– Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Janet Rickershauser, Pathway Law; Alyssa Fitzgerald, Goodwin.

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, TSNE MissionWorks.

Jan
31
Thu
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin
Jan 31 @ 4:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Nonprofit Incorporation Workshop @ Goodwin

Are you a leader of an existing nonprofit organization or have an interest in creating a new one? Do you have questions and concerns about incorporating and/or filing for tax-exempt status? All nonprofit start-ups are invited to attend this legal seminar for nonprofits, led by experienced nonprofit attorneys. At this group session, we will assist your organization in understanding the complicated processes of formalizing a nonprofit in Massachusetts by addressing questions regarding:

– For-Profit or Not-for-Profit?
– What is a Not-for-Profit?
– Incorporating & Structuring the Not-for-Profit
– Option of Fiscal Sponsorship
– State Reporting & Regulation
– Federal Tax Exemption
– Ongoing IRS Reporting & Regulation

Presenters: Sue Aboott, Goodwin; Luke Blackadar, Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts; Josh Sattely, TSNE MissionWorks.

Co-sponsors: Goodwin, Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston/Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, TSNE MissionWorks.

Mar
22
Fri
Get on Board! Seminar @ Locke Lord LLP
Mar 22 @ 12:00 pm – 4:00 pm
Get on Board! Seminar @ Locke Lord LLP

The A&BC’s Business on Board program provides board service training for executives as well as board development consulting resources for nonprofits.

“Get on Board!” Seminars
Boston-area nonprofit organizations are in need of experienced business professionals to share their unique expertise and passion for important causes. Business skills, enthusiasm, and the desire to make a positive difference can have a huge impact on any organization. If you have always wanted to serve on the board of a nonprofit now is your chance to learn what is required and to find the organization that’s right for you.

Get on Board!, a one-day bootcamp, prepares business professionals for the rewarding experience of volunteerism, nonprofit leadership, and board participation. These seminars are also well-suited for nonprofit administrators seeking to learn more about board management or who are seeking to onboard new or prospective board members.

Participants learn about the different types and structures of boards, as well as the roles, responsibilities, and legal obligations of nonprofit board members. This seminar also provides the tools and resources to find the organization that is a best fit for an individual’s skills and passions.

This fun and interactive seminar covers:
Board types and structures
Effective board governance
Group dynamics and decision making
Legal and fiduciary responsibilities
Fundraising, marketing, and strategic planning
Finding the organization for you

Who should attend:
Anyone interesting in serving on a board now or in the future
Current board members seeking a better understanding of their role
Executives of newly incorporated nonprofits
Executive Directors and administrators of nonprofits
Business professionals of any age and level of experience who are passionate about nonprofit causes
Human resources professionals or directors of training
Entire nonprofit boards or board committees that want to learn together and build common language and goals related to healthy board development and operations.